Copyright © 1996 by
M. Anderson. All rights
An Appreciation of the Oneness of God
with Reference to
the Son of God and the Holy Spirit
Christians and Muslims
by M. Anderson
I have written this booklet to dispel some misunderstandings
Muslims have about the title 'Son of God' and the subject of
'Trinity'. As such this booklet is not trying cover all the Biblical
material to prove the deity of Christ or the Holy Spirit. I
presuppose that the Christian reader is aware of the Biblical
evidence for the divinity of Christ and the Holy Spirit. If not, such
a reader will find it helpful to familiarise himself with the subject
in a book such as Berkhof's Systematic Theology. This booklet then is
written to give some Christians a better appreciation of the oneness
of God in relation to the Trinity, in order that they might be able
to communicate what Christians believe to their Muslim friends using
Islamic sources and concepts.
Some of the areas of misunderstanding between Muslims and
Christians centre on the nature of God; the concept of the 'Trinity';
and the title 'Son of God'.
The Bible clearly teaches that God is one.
A Jewish teacher asked Jesus one day,
'Of all the commandments, which is the most important?' 'The most
important one,' answered Jesus, 'is this: 'Hear O Israel, the Lord
our God, the Lord is one. Love the Lord your God with all your
heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all
your strength." (Mark 12:29 NIV).
The Apostle Paul also taught the oneness of God when he wrote to
one of the early churches that: 'There is no God but one.' (1
Corinthians 8:4 NIV)
In spite of the above clear teaching, the majority of Muslims to
this day cling to the misunderstanding that Christians worship three
Gods, not one.
Ibn 'Abbas, an early Muslim scholar said, 'what is meant by the
Trinity is God the most high, His consort and His son'. Some later
commentators saw the Trinity as 'God, Mary, and Jesus'. This
understanding is based on the Qur'an (see Q. 5:72-75 & 116).
Even as recently as 1970 a Muslim writer said, 'The words of the
Gospel give you the impression that God is a family man with a son
and a wife.'
The above understanding is clouded with physical, sexual
connotations. To this day, I have not met a Christian who believes
that the Trinity is "God and Mary and Jesus." Neither have I met a
Christian who understands God as revealed in the Bible as a family
man with a son and a wife.
God is Spirit. He is the supreme being. When the Bible speaks of
God as the Father, it does not mean that there is a mother somewhere,
with in-laws, uncles etc. God forbid. When the word 'Father' is
mentioned of God, it means that He is the Creator of all and the
Provider for all.
THE EXPRESSION 'SON OF GOD'
The use of expressions such as 'son of' or 'father of' or 'mother
of' is universal. Most people would have heard the expression 'Mother
of all battles' used by the Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein. What does
that expression mean? Are we to understand that if there is a 'mother
of battles' then there must also be a 'father of battles' and if they
join together they will produce baby battles? Of course not!
In the Qur'an itself we read the expression 'Mother of the Book'
(Q. 13:39). Does that mean that there is a 'Father of the Book' and
'Sons of the Book' somewhere? Of course not. Muslims believe that the
expression 'Mother of the Book' refers to the heavenly origin of the
Qur'an and that the earthly copy of the Qur'an is the visible
expression of the invisible 'Mother of the Book'.
Deedat, a contemporary (Ahmadi) Muslim apologist finds great
offence in the use of the expression 'Son of God', and in particular
the expression 'only begotten' which is used in John 3:16. Instead of
going to a reference book to find the meaning of the expression 'only
begotten' (as any serious scholar would do), he asked a lay person.
He told him that the expression 'only begotten', means 'sired by
The word monogenes which is translated 'only begotten' in
the King James version in John 3:16 appears 9 times in the New
Testament: 3 times in Luke (7:12, 8:42 and 9:38) and 4 times in John
as a designation of Jesus' relationship to God (1:14, 18; 3:16, 18),
in 1 John 4:9 and in Heb 11:17 (of Isaac). According to Exegetical
Dictionary of the New Testament the word monogenes means:
- only, one of a kind, unique (derived from monos
and genos). This basic meaning is found in Plato Ti 92c (of
the heaven); Wisdom 7:22 (of the Spirit of Wisdom); Cornutus
Theologia Graeca 27 [49:13] (of this one and only
Although the noun genos is related to the verb
gi(g)nesthai, the root genes- lost its original
sexual connotation and soon meant simply "become," without any
reference to birth ...
- monogenes means only in all the Lukan passages
- 'Unique' is the actual meaning of monogenes as can be
seen in Hebrews 11:17, where it is used of Isaac (Gen 21:12). The
word here means only (son) of his kind. Abraham in
fact had already begotten Ishmael and later had six other sons ...
- 'The/his only son' is the clear meaning of the phrase with
monogenes in John 3:16,18 and 1 John 4:9. The expression
indicates Jesus' unique personality, in relation to the father,
and mission. According to John 1:14,18 the Logos [the Word of God]
is the 'Only One' from the Father and therefore in his nature is
the only revealer of the Father.
Furthermore, it is to be noted that in the New Testament the verb
'to beget (gennao) (become the father of)' is used to describe
the relationship between God the Father and the Son only in
quotations of Ps. 2:7 (Acts 13:33 and Hebrews 1:5, 5:5). In the Old
Testament the reference was to the earthly king who on the day of his
assumption of the high office was said to have been begotten by God.
In Acts 13:33 the quotation is applied to the resurrection of the
Lord Jesus. It is nowhere applied to the birth of the Lord Jesus.
Had Mr Deedat consulted any reference book on the meaning of the
word, he would have been better informed.
Even if we allow the use of the word 'begotten' as a correct
translation of monogenes, the use of anthropomorphic words and
expressions is also found in the Qur'an. If a person reads such words
or expressions and understands them in a literal sense as Mr. Deedat
did, heretical and blasphemous views would result. For example when
the Qur'an describes God as light in Q. 24:35. If we take the literal
meaning of this, it would mean that God produces an electrical
current or that He is alight, or aflame. Clearly this is ridiculous.
Another example: the Qur'an states that after completing the act of
creation: '... Allah sat Himself upon the Throne.' If a person
reading this verse is to understand the word 'sat' the way Mr Deedat
understood the word 'begotten', then that person must conclude that
Allah must have bent his knees and rested certain parts of his
anatomy on the throne in order that the act of resting was achieved.
Such understanding is absurd, as is Mr Deedat's understanding of the
THE MEANING OF THE TITLE 'SON OF GOD'
Imagine that you come across the stump of a tree in a field. The
stump is level with the ground. All you can see is the cross section
of the trunk. As you dig around a bit you begin to see some of the
roots. Can you tell, by merely looking at the tree roots if the tree
is a mango tree, an orange tree, or an apple tree? You will not be
able to tell by looking just at the roots alone. Supposing the tree
belonged to the citrus family, could you tell by just looking at the
roots whether the tree is a mandarin, navel orange or a lemon? When
can you tell with certainty that the tree is a mandarin for example?
Only by seeing the mandarin fruit can you tell. If you took a tender
root of a mandarin tree and tasted it, you would not taste any
flavour of mandarin. Even if you took that root and crushed it in a
blender, you still would not get a drop of mandarin juice or any
mandarin flavour from that root.
It is the fruit that reveals the hidden nature of the root. The
fruit is the exact manifestation of the unknown roots.
We encounter a similar but even far greater problem when we try to
know God. For God is unknown. No one has ever seen God the Father
(John 6:46). A tree root can be seen, but not God. When can you
identify a tree with certainty? Only on seeing the fruit. (It is true
that an expert dendrologist might be able to identify the tree
because of his previous experience with roots, but with God no one
has ever seen Him.)
Jesus is like the fruit of the tree. By him the hidden nature of
God is revealed, just as the fruit of a tree reveals the hidden
nature of the roots. Jesus is from God just as the fruit is from the
roots. Jesus and the Father are one just as the fruit and the roots
are one in nature. Jesus never claimed that he was the Father.
Instead, He said, 'I and the Father are one.' The fruit is not the
roots, but it is true to say the fruit and the roots are one. Jesus
is the visible expression of the invisible God, just as the fruit is
the visible expression of the hidden nature of the roots. And that is
what is meant by Jesus being the 'Son of God.'
The disciple John reported the following conversation:
Thomas said to Him, 'Lord, we do not know where You are going; how
do we know the way?' Jesus said to him 'I am the way, and the
truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father, but through Me.
If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also; from now
on you know Him, and have seen Him.' Philip said to Him, 'Lord,
show us the Father, and it is enough for us.' Jesus said to
him,''Have I been so long with you, and yet you have not come to
know Me, Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father; how do
you say, 'Show us the Father?' Do you not believe that I am in the
Father, and the Father is in Me? The words that I say to you I do
not speak on My own initiative, but the Father abiding in Me does
His works. Believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in
Me; otherwise believe on account of the works themselves.' (John
Jesus made it clear that whoever has seen Him has seen the Father.
Elsewhere we read:
No one has ever seen God. The only Son, God, who is at the
Father's side, has revealed him. (John 1:18 NAB)
The Bible also states,
The Son is the radiance of God's glory and the exact
representation of his being. (Hebrews 1:3 NIV) And that 'He is the
image of the invisible God.' (Colossians 1:15 NIV)
It is true that, in the above analogy of the tree and its fruit,
the roots precede the fruit. That is, at one point in time there were
the roots without the fruit, because the illustration of the tree
belongs to time. But when we speak of God, we speak of the eternal,
where time is not a factor at all. The above analogy tries to make
one point which is, just as the fruit is the visible expression of
the hidden nature of the roots, so the Son of God is the visible
expression of the invisible God. Ghazali, a Muslim scholar has said,
'The analogy does not have to agree in every way with that which it
resembles.' Otherwise it is not an analogy, but an exact copy of
that which it resembles.
The title 'Son of God' does not apply only to Jesus in His human
form. The 'Son of God' existed with the Father from eternity. This is
why the Bible describes not only the Father as 'the First and the
Last', but the 'Son of God' also. (Revelation 1:17) The 'Son of God'
who is the 'Word of God' existed with the Father from eternity. He is
the knowable God. He is called the 'Word of God' because the word
reveals the hidden thoughts of a person. The word written or uttered
is the visible expression of the invisible thoughts.
The title 'Son of God' is the same as the title 'Word of God'.
Both refer to the One who is the visible expression of the invisible
God, not only when He became incarnate and was given the name Jesus,
but in His essential being throughout eternity.
GOD'S CREATING AGENT
The Bible teaches that God the Father created the heavens and the
earth; that He is the creator of everything. The Bible also teaches
that Jesus, the 'Word of God', created everything.
Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made
that has been made. (John 1:3 NIV) He is the image of the
invisible God, the first born over all creation. For by him all
things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and
invisible ... all things were created by him and for him.
(Colossians 1:15,16 NIV)
After reading these verses the question that arises is: How many
creators are there? Is there one creator or two? Surely no one
disputes that there is one creator.
Christians believe that there is one creator. God the Father
created everything but He did so through the 'Son', his Word.
The above two verses clearly state that everything was created by God
through the 'Son' or by the 'Son'. That is, God the
Father created everything by the 'Son'.
The following analogy about the atomic bomb might help to explain
what is meant. Consider the atomic bomb that destroyed the Japanese
city Hiroshima. Had that bomb fallen on a building, the actual
physical structure of the bomb probably would have only destroyed
that building and its inhabitants. But the bomb did more than that.
It destroyed a whole city. How did it do that? Did the bomb fall on
every individual building one after the other in that city in order
to kill its inhabitants? No. The bomb did all that damage by its
rays. The atomic radiation that proceeded from the bomb was the cause
of the death of the large number of people in that city.
No one disputes that it is the bomb which caused that destruction.
But it did so by its rays. Similarly, (but unlike the destructive
powers of the atomic bomb), during creation, God the Father created
everything by the Son, His Word, just as the bomb destroyed that city
by its rays. Had someone shielded himself from the atomic rays by
wearing special protective clothing in that city, he would have
survived. The bomb does not 'work' apart from its rays. In a sense
the bomb and its rays are distinct, but in another sense they are
one. In a similar way it can be said that God and his Son are
distinct, yet at the same time, ONE. The Bible states:
The Son is the radiance of God's glory. (Hebrews 1:3 NIV)
So just as the rays were the destructive agents of the atomic
bomb, the 'Son of God' who is also called the 'Word of God' is the
creating agent of God.
The Son is God's creating agent. God always creates by His Word.
Although God is capable of doing anything, we are not told that God
created by merely wishing or imagining. He always creates by His
Word. Even the Qur'an states that God creates by his word. For
God creates what He will. When He decrees a thing He does but say
to it "Be," and it is.
If one prevented the rays of the bomb from reaching certain
individuals in Hiroshima, the bomb would not have been able to kill
those individuals. Just as the bomb always kills by its rays, God
always creates by his 'Son'. The Bible states:
Through Him [that is the Son of God] all things were made;
without him nothing was made that has been made. (John 1:3
He is the creator of everything. The 'Son of God', who is also
called the 'Word of God', is the creating agent of God.
GOD'S JUDGING AGENT
It is important to note that God not only created everything by
His 'Son', His 'Word', but He will also judge everyone by His 'Son',
His 'Word'. The Bible states,
He commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that he
(Jesus) is the one whom God appointed as judge of the living and
the dead. (Acts 10:42 NIV)
For He (God) has set a day when he will judge the world ...
by the man He has appointed. He has given proof of this to
all men by raising Him from the dead. (Acts 17:31 NIV)
This will take place when God will judge men's secrets
through Jesus Christ. (Romans 2:16 NIV)
Moreover the Father judges no one, but has entrusted all
judgement to the Son. (John 5:22 NIV)
Just as 'Through him [that is the 'Son of God'] all things were
made; without him nothing was made that has been made.' (John 1:3) so
also every one will be judged by the 'Son of God'. He is the judge of
all. The 'Son of God' is God's judging agent.
GOD'S SAVING AGENT
The Father not only created by his 'Son', and will judge by his
Son, but He also saves the world by his Son. The Bible states,
For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world,
but to save the world through him. (John 3:17 NIV)
To the only God our saviour be glory, majesty, power and
authority through Jesus Christ our Lord, before all ages,
now and forevermore! Amen. (Jude:25 NIV)
Salvation is found in no one else [meaning the 'Son of God'], for
'there is no other name under heaven given to men by which we must be
saved.' (Acts 4:12)
Just as "Through him [that is the 'Son of God'] all things were
made; without him nothing was made that has been made." (John 1:3) so
also salvation is found in no one else.
The 'Son' is the saving agent of God.
GOD'S LOVING AGENT
The Father not only created by the 'Son', saves by the 'Son', and
will judge by his 'Son', but He also loves the world through the
'Son'. The Bible states,
For God so loved the world that He gave his one and only Son, that
whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.
(John 3:16 NIV)
But God demonstrated his own love for us in this: While we were
still sinners, Christ died for us. (Romans 5:8 NIV)
These verses state that it is Christ who died for us. It seems
that what the latter verse should say is: "But Christ demonstrated
his own love for us ..." However the verse says that
God demonstrated his own love for us in the death of Christ,
because God loves through the 'Son'.
The point can be made more clearly through the following
illustrations. If I claim that I demonstrated my love for my
neighbour by asking my son to give fifty thousand dollars from his
account to that neighbour to pay his debts, who would be loving the
neighbour, my son who gave money from his account or me? Obviously,
my son, who gave the large sum of money - unless the money came from
a joint account in my name and his. Then it would be true to say that
I demonstrated my love to my neighbour when my son gave him the fifty
Again, if I sent my son to help in the relief work amongst the
Bosnian Muslims, but during the operation he was shot in many places,
was operated upon but finally died, it is indisputable that in the
sending of my son and through his death there was a
measure of my love, but not all my love. In this case,
it would be more true to say that my son loved the Bosnian Muslims,
than to say I demonstrated my love for them, because he
is the one that suffered and died. But the Bible states that in the
suffering and death of Christ, God demonstrated His own
love. Although it is Jesus who suffered and died, the Father was very
much involved in the sacrificial death of Christ. When Jesus died for
us, God the father was the one who loved us through Jesus.
Just as in the analogy of the tree, the orange juice is supplied
by the roots through the fruit, so also the Divine Love came from God
through Jesus to us sinners. To use another human analogy, Jesus is
the 'heart of God' by whom He loved the world.
So the 'Son of God' means the one through whom God reveals
himself, the one through whom God created everything, the one by whom
God saves people from their sins, the one by whom God loves the world
and the one by whom God will judge everyone.
The 'Son of God' is God's revealing, creating,
saving, judging and loving agent.
In the above discussion we have seen that God creates, judges,
saves, loves and reveals himself through the Son. The first three of
the above activities (i.e. creating, judging and saving), although
divine, are related to the created order. The other two activities
(revealing and loving) are related to the essence and the heart of
God. The above division is made because some argue that God can judge
and save, and even create by a creature. But for God to truly reveal
Himself, the revealing agent must also be Divine.
Similarly, for God to truly love the world, the loving agent must
also be Divine. Otherwise this revelation, and this love cannot be
truly called a revelation of God or the love of God.
Therefore the 'Son of God' is not only related to the created
order through creating, judging and saving, but is related to the
very essence and nature of God through revealing and loving. He is
from God. The main point in the title 'Son of God' is oneness of
nature. The 'Son' is from God and of God's very nature.
The physical and sexual connotations then, that some suggest in
the title 'Son of God', are completely without foundation, in the
Bible, and in any commentary on it. Indeed such a thought is just as
abhorrent to a Christian as it is to a Muslim.
JESUS AND THE QUR'AN; SIMILAR BELIEFS
The fundamental meaning of the word monogenes (which is
translated 'begotten' by the King James Version), and the title 'Son
of God' or the 'Word of God', is that the essence of the 'Son'
proceeded from God. Similarly Muslims believe that the
Qur'an is uncreated because it is from God as the
following statements show:
Ibn Hazm reports Ibn Hanbal as saying 'the Word of God is His
eternal knowledge and hence it is uncreated.'
And the Hadith that says
The Hour of Doom will not come until the Qur'an returns to where
it came from, its echo around the Throne will be like that of a
bee hive, the Most High God will say : 'what is the matter?', the
Qur'an will answer: 'from you I came and to you I return, I
am being read but no one acts accordingly'.
Traditional Muslim scholars believe that
The Qur'an which is recited by tongues, written in Masahif [copies
of the written Qur'an], remembered in hearts, yet is Eternal,
existing in God Himself, cannot be separated or parted from
God by transferring it to the hearts or by writing it on
Shahrstani quotes another statement which he ascribes to the same
early Muslims. It reads as follows:
One is not to suppose that we assert the eternity of the
letters and sounds which subsists in our tongues.
The Muslim theologians recognise that the Qur'an has two aspects,
just like the Christians believe that Jesus the Christ has two
natures also, a human nature and a divine nature. Note particularly
the statements 'written in Masahif' [with human hands, that is, in
time and space], 'YET it is eternal existing in God Himself',
and the statement 'agreement has established that the Word of God
is uncreated'; and 'One is not to suppose that we assert the
eternity of the letters and sounds which subsists in our
tongues'. So then the Muslims believe the Qur'an is not only a
book, but God's eternal knowledge. They believe that the Qur'an is
not created but eternal, and that it came from God, then clothed in
Arabic language, appeared in human history and collected by the
followers of Mohammad. The Qur'an then is believed to have a material
nature and a divine nature. It has a material nature because it is
written on paper, bound and stitched together, subject to factors of
decay and even vulnerable to being destroyed by fire, mould or eaten
by insects as one sees in older copies in some libraries. Yet it is
believed to have a divine nature for it is the knowledge of God,
No wonder that one of the Muslim rulers, Caliph Ma'moun (786-833),
during his campaign against the belief in the uncreatedness of the
Qur'an, in his third letter to the governor of Baghdad, argues that
those who believe in the uncreatedness of the Qur'an are 'like
Christians when they claim that Jesus the son of Mary was not created
because he was the Word of God.'
So just as Muslims believe the Qur'an to be from God, Christians
believe that the 'Son of God' or 'Word of God', Jesus, is from God.
Jesus repeatedly made the claim that He is from God.
Jesus therefore cried out in the temple, teaching and saying, You
both know Me, and know where I am from; and I have not come of
Myself, but He who sent Me is true, whom you do not know. I
know Him; because I am from Him, and He sent Me. They were
seeking therefore to seize Him; and no man laid his hand on
Him, because His hour had not yet come. But many of the multitude
believed in Him; and they were saying, "When the Christ shall
come, He will not perform more signs than those which this man
has, will He? The Pharisees heard the multitude muttering these
things about Him; and the chief priests and the Pharisees sent
officers to seize Him. Jesus therefore said, "For a little while
longer I am with you, then I go to Him who sent Me. You
shall seek Me, and shall not find Me; and where I am, you cannot
come. (John 7:28-34 NAS)
The Jews understood very well the claim of Jesus when He said
'I am from Him', to be a claim of Divinity, and so 'They
were seeking therefore to seize Him' to kill Him. They
considered the claim to be outright blasphemy.
Again John reports the following:
Now before the Feast of the Passover, Jesus knowing that His hour
had come that He should depart out of this world to the Father,
having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to
theend. ...Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things
into His hands, and that He had come forth from God, and was
going back to God..."(John 13:1&3 NAS)
To His disciples Jesus once said:
For the Father himself loves you, because you have loved me and
have believed that I came forth from the Father. I came forth
from the Father, and have come into the world; I am leaving the
world again, and going to the Father. (John 16:27-28 NAS)
The 'Word of God' is not created, He is eternal. Jesus is not only
man; Jesus is not only a prophet; He is both human and Divine.
The Bible teaches that the 'Son of God' who is the Word of God
existed from eternity, 'And the Word [of God] became flesh,
and dwelt among us.' (John 1:14, NAS)
THE DIVINITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT
In the previous discussion we showed that the 'Son' is the
Father's agent in the acts of creation, judgment, salvation and love
because He is from God.
The Bible also ascribes the above activities to the Holy Spirit.
The Spirit Creates:
The Spirit of God has made me; the breath of the
Almighty gives me life. (Job 33:4 NIV) (See also Gen 2:7)
When You send your Spirit, they are created, and
you renew the face of the earth. (Psalm 104:30 NIV)
The Spirit Judges:
Unless I go away, the Counsellor will not come to you; but if I
go, I will send him to you. When He comes, He will convict the
world of guilt in regard to sin and righteousness and
judgment: in regard to sin, because men do not believe in me;
in regard to righteousness, because I am going to the Father,
where you can see me no longer; and in regard to judgment, because
the prince of this world now stands condemned. (John 16:7-11 NIV)
The Spirit saves:
... because through Christ Jesus the law of the Spirit of life
set me free from the law of sin and death. (Romans 8:2 NIV)
The Spirit Loves:
I urge you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by the love
of the Spirit, to join me in my struggle by praying to God for
me. (Romans 15:30 NIV)
The Bible then teaches that the Father, the Son and the Holy
Spirit are involved in the above Divine activities.
We have seen how the Father creates, judges, saves and loves
through the Son. But how can the Holy Spirit be involved in all of
these also? To illustrate the work of the Spirit of God in one of
these acts, the act of creation, we cite the experience of a prophet
by the name of Ezekiel, who was brought by God to a valley full of
dry bones. Here is what he experienced:
The hand of Jehovah was on me and brought me by the Spirit of
Jehovah, and made me rest in the midst of a valley; and it was
full of bones.
Then He made me pass among them all around, and, behold, very many
were on the face of valley; and, behold! they were very
And He said to me, "Son of man, can these bones live?" and I said,
"O Lord Jehovah, You know."
And He said to me, "Prophesy to these bones, and say to them, 'O
dry bones, hear the word of the Jehovah!
' So says the Lord Jehovah to these bones: "Behold I will make
breath enter into you, and you shall live.
"And I will put sinews on you and will bring flesh on you, spread
skin over you, and put breath in you; and you shall live. And you
shall know that I am Jehovah."
So I prophesied as I was commanded; and as I prophesied, there was
a noise, and behold a shaking! and the bones drew near, a bone to
And I watched. And, behold! The sinews and the flesh came upon
them, and the skin spread over them from above; but there
was no breath in them.
Then He said to me, "Prophesy to the Spirit, Prophesy, son
of man, and say to the Spirit, 'So says the Lord Jehovah:
"Come from the four winds, O Spirit, and breathe on these
slain ones, that they may live.'"
So I prophesied as He commanded me, and the Spirit came
into them, and they lived, and they stood on their feet, a very
Then He said to me, "Son of man, these bones are all the house of
Israel. Behold they say, 'Our bones are dried, and our hope is
perished; we are cut off to ourselves.'
"So prophesy and say to them, 'So says the Lord Jehovah: "Behold,
I will open your graves and cause you to come up out of your
graves, O my people, and will bring you to the land of Israel.
"And you shall know that I am Jehovah, when I have opened
your graves, and have brought you up out of your graves, O My
"And I shall put My Spirit in you, and you shall live. And
I will put you on your own land. And you shall know that I,
Jehovah, have spoken and have done it," says Jehovah.'"
The activity of the Spirit is illustrated in the above passage.
Although the bodies were physically complete, they were without life.
Although the design was complete the bodies were lifeless. The Spirit
gave the dead corpses life as the above highlighted verses indicates.
Although the design is an act of creation, it is not the whole act
of creation. It needs the work of the Spirit. The Spirit fires the
design with life.
The 'Word of God', the 'Son' provides every created thing with its
particular order, that specific design that makes it what it is. The
Spirit gives it the life to live as that particular creation.
As some have put it:
Although all three persons [the Father, the 'Son' and the Holy
Spirit] are omnipresent and consciously interrelated in all their
activities, each has some distinctive historical activities. In
regard to creation, the Father calls forth energy-matter, the
Logos [the Word of God] informs it and orders its law of change,
and the Holy Spirit leads it to develop according to its nature
and achieve its destiny.
HUMAN LANGUAGE AND DIVINE REALITIES
When we speak of God we use human language. But not only that, we
comprehend what we hear with our human minds, which can relate only
to human experiences. To fully understand God, we need divine
language and the divine mind, both of which we lack. Thus, we have a
The following incident will help explain the problem of expressing
new realities to minds that are limited in comprehension.
While visiting my sister, who was living in a flat on the third
floor, I saw her two year old son trying to climb up the balcony
rail. After some attempts he managed to find a couple of footholds
and he was about to straddle the rail. I dashed to the balcony and
caught him. Very sternly I said, 'Had you fallen from this balcony
you would have been killed.' He gave me a blank look and innocently
nodded his head and said, 'I would have been killed'. I stood there
frustrated because I had failed to communicate to the child the
seriousness of his action. How many two year olds can understand the
concept of 'death'? I should have said to him, 'Had you fallen from
this balcony you would have been broken like an egg and no one would
have been able to put you together again'. Put that way he would have
probably understood not to climb on the rail again.
How do we comprehend new concepts? How do we express new or
unknown realities? Unlike the previous incident where an adult was
trying to communicate with a child in the next two incidents children
are trying to communicate with an adult.
When my daughter was about two years old, she saw the moon one
clear night. In a very serious tone of voice she shouted 'Daddy,
Daddy, someone has been eating the moon!' this was the first time she
had seen a crescent moon. Every time she had seen the moon before, it
had been full. This time it was only a part of the moon. What reduces
a whole moon to a crescent shaped moon? Out of her reservoir of
experiences came the answer. The moon is usually the shape of a
cookie. Cookies are reduced in size when someone eats them. What
applies to cookies should logically apply to the moon. Someone has
been eating the moon, and he must be stopped, she reasoned.
On another occasion, when my little boy had his first taste of
fizzy drink, he brought a bottle to me and said : 'Daddy, open door!'
He knew about doors, but he did not know the word 'lid'.
Not only children resort to their reservoir of experiences to
express themselves, we adults do this also. Try explaining the taste
of mango to someone who has never tasted a mango, or try describing
an exotic fruit, such as a jack fruit, to some one who has never seen
In trying to understand the trinity, we use the same process,
through the use of analogies. However analogies have limitations, for
when we speak of the being of God we are dealing with the highest
form of life. Hence His being cannot be adequately represented by
lower forms of life, even if they were all put together. Yet
analogies can help us have a measure of understanding.
If we go back to the illustration of the tree, where the tree root
represents the invisible Father, the fruit represents the 'Word of
God' and the 'Son of God', the juice of the fruit can be seen to
represent the Holy Spirit. The juice is from the tree and from the
fruit, and the Holy Spirit is rightly called the Spirit of God and
the Spirit of Christ.
For just as the juice takes the goodness, vitamins, minerals, and
the energy of the fruit to the human being, the Spirit takes the
love, the life and the righteousness of Christ to the heart and the
life of the believer.
The fruit on the tree is of no real use to people until the
goodness of the fruit is taken inside of them by means of the juice.
Notice the fruit is not the juice. But the juice carries all the
goodness of the fruit. If the tree is orange, then the fruit is
essentially an orange and the juice is also essentially orange. The
juice has the same nature as the fruit, and the fruit has the same
nature as the roots, eg. orange.
Or if we consider a Jasmine plant. The invisible roots represent
the Father. The visible flower represents the 'Son'. The fragrance of
the Jasmine represents the Holy Spirit. The flower is from the roots.
The fragrance is from the roots and is also from the flower. That is
why the Holy Spirit is called the Spirit of Christ and also the
Spirit of God. The flower has the same nature as the root, that is
Jasmine, and the fragrance also is Jasmine. The three are one Jasmine
An analogy for the Father, Son and Spirit can also be drawn from
the nature and workings of the sun. We are told that in the sun there
is thermonuclear fusion. When we look at the sun, we do not see this
process. This process is invisible. What we see is the visible
expression of this invisible process, that is, the bright sun in the
sky. The invisible part resembles the Father, the visible bright disk
of the sun represents the Son. The rays of the sun (which are
invisible) that take the enormous energy from the sun to where we are
on this planet represent the Holy Spirit.
In trying to explain the essence of God we are trying to express
the inexpressible. Let us simulate or try to appreciate the
difficulty by moving down instead of moving up.
Imagine a tree trying to comprehend the nature of man, and you
will begin to realise the problems human beings have in trying to
understand the nature of God.
To begin with a tree cannot see humans. To a tree man is
completely unknown. He can move around the tree without the tree
being aware of his existence. He can cut it down, without the tree
taking any evasive action. A tree does not distinguish between an old
man or a young man. Man can destroy a tree by many different means.
He can poison it or he can cut it down. The tree has no ability to
defend itself against man. Man is in total control over the tree. The
tree cannot make any prediction about, avoid, or defend itself
against man, because a tree cannot see man. In the world of trees it
could be said that man does not exist because he cannot be seen by
the tree. All that can be known about man is what can be experienced
by his influence. This in a way is as much as men naturally perceive
of God. We have not seen God but we can feel his acts and his
influence on our world. He can be as close to us as we to a tree yet
we do not perceive Him, as we do each other.
So instead of moving up we moved down. But let us develop the
thinking stimulated by this movement a little bit more.
GOD IN THE QUR'AN
How would a plant describe the nature of man to the rest of the
plant kingdom? How would a tree, that cannot see man, yet convinced
of his existence, describe man to the rest of the trees? Remember the
crescent moon and the cookie? A tree would describe man as a tree. It
might be a super tree, but it is still a tree. All the tree can say
of man, is that man is but a kind of a tree; with roots but unlike
it's roots, with branches but unlike it's branches, with leaves but
unlike it's leaves, with fruit but unlike it's fruit. Similarly man,
being of a lower order and nature than God, can only comprehend God
in human terms.
To speak of God in human terms is not foreign to the Muslim.
According to the Qur'an and the Hadith, Allah has a face, hands,
fingers, feet and eyes:
All that dwells upon the earth is perishing, yet still abides the
Face of thy Lord, majestic, splendid.
Said He, 'Iblis, what prevented thee to bow thyself before that
I created with my own hands?
A (Jewish) Rabbi came to Allah's Apostle and said, 'O Mohammad!
We learn that Allah will put all the heavens on one finger,
and the earths on one finger, and the trees on one finger, and the
water and the dust on one finger, and all the other created beings
on one finger. Then He will say, 'I am the king.' Thereupon the
Prophet smiled so that his pre-molar teeth became visible, and
that was the confirmation of the Rabbi.
...God will put His foot in Hell....and it will shrink
.... 'Surely thou art before Our eyes.
The orthodox scholars, however, stress that Allah's face is unlike
our face, his hands are unlike our hands, his feet are not like our
feet and his eyes are unlike our eyes.
Allah's essence is unlike any other essence. His hand is unlike
other hands ... his word is unlike other words ... His hand is not
flesh, bone and blood like other hands ... and his word is not
voice and letters.
Not only does Allah, in Islam, have a face, eyes, hands, and feet,
but He sits, comes, and runs. The Qur'an speaks of Allah, after
finishing the creation in the following words: '...then Allah sat
Himself upon the Throne.'
Of his coming it says:
When the earth is ground to powder, and thy Lord comes, and the
angels rank on rank ...
Another Hadith says:
God descend to the Physical heaven ....
Of Allah's running, a Hadith says:
God said : ' O son of Adam, if you rise to Me, I will walk to you
and if you walk to Me, I will run to you.'
Some commentators such as Imam Razi spiritualise everything
regarding Allah. So when Allah is said to have eyes, that only means
that Allah can see.
On the other hand, others like Dr. Qaradawi when commenting on the
verse 'Said He [Allah], 'Iblis [the devil], what prevented thee to
bow thyself before that which I created with My own hands?' (Q.
38:75) insist that Allah has hands:
Since the hands in the above verse can not be interpreted as
Allah's power, because all things were created by Allah's power,
even Iblis himself being created by Allah's power, then nothing
remains to distinguish the creation of Adam from the rest of
Allah's creation. And in the Hadith 'Allah created three things by
His hand; He created Adam by his hand; He wrote the Torah by His
hand; and He planted Paradise by His hand.' The distinguishing of
those three by mentioning that they were created by Allah's hand,
(although they share with the rest of creation that they all exist
by the power of Allah), proves that there is something extra that
distinguishes them (Adam, the Torah, and Paradise). Besides, the
expression, 'pair of hands' is not known except when the hands are
real, and was never used to indicate power or grace ... and how
can the hand be interpreted as power when the palm of Allah, and
the fingers of Allah, and Allah's left and right, the folding and
the unfolding of Allah's hand [Q. 5:64], has been established. All
of which can only be ascribed to a real hand.
The belief that Allah has hands, fingers, face, feet, and eyes,
etc. is not held by fringe Muslim sects but by the most
fundamental scholars. It is held so strongly that any one who
denies this belief is considered an infidel in the eyes of some of
those scholars. For example, Ahmad Ibn Taymiya, the famous
exponent of the school of Ibn Hanbal, considered the Mo'tazelites
as infidels and the famous scholar Ghazali as a heretic. He was
once preaching and as he stepped down from the pulpit of the great
mosque in Damascus, he said, 'God will step down from His throne
in the same manner as I am stepping down from this pulpit.'
So Allah not only has a face, eyes, hands, fingers, and feet but
also can sit on the throne, come, and run. It is only logical to
conclude that Allah has a body, but unlike our bodies. For the eyes,
the face, the hands, the fingers, and the feet do not exist apart
from the rest of the body. Not only has Allah in Islam a body, but
also Allah has a soul. Imam Abu Hanifah who has the largest following
of Muslims said:
The most high has a hand and face and soul (Q. 5:116) without
asking how (bela kayf) 
This is the belief of orthodox Muslims, as long as the Muslim
believer does not ask how.
According to the Qur'an, Allah also has a spirit. (Q. 15:29 &
38:27) a subject to which we shall now turn.
THE SPIRIT IN THE QUR'AN
Very little is known about the Spirit in the Qur'an, as the
following verse indicates:
They will question thee concerning the Spirit. Say: 'The Spirit is
of the bidding of my Lord. You have been given of knowledge
nothing except a little.'
Not only is knowledge about the Spirit meagre, even the desire to
acquire more knowledge is forbidden. Ghazali stated:
Too close inquiry, however, into the essence of the Spirit is
forbidden by Law.
However, man being naturally inquisitive, has continued to probe
into the nature of the Spirit in spite of such prohibitions. While
Allah's face, eyes etc. are believed to be uncreated, Allah's Spirit
is believed by the majority of Muslim scholars, to be created. But a
study of the word, 'Spirit' in the Qur'an proves the opposite.
The word, 'Spirit' or its derivatives are mentioned twenty-four
times in the Qur'an and not once in relation to man. The word that
describes the inner being of a man is 'soul', not 'Spirit'. Dr
Mustafa Mahmoud draws a distinction between the spirit and the soul
in the Qur'an:
According to the common language, we mix between the soul and the
Spirit. And so we say, 'his spirit departed', or 'his spirit longs
for such and such', or 'his spirit is in torment' ... All these
are incorrect expressions and belong only to the soul, not the
Spirit. For what departs from the body is the soul (Q 6:93), and
what tastes death is the soul and not the spirit (Q 3:185) ... The
soul exists before birth, and during the lifetime of a person, and
remains after death. The Spirit cannot be tempted (Q. 5:30, Q.
50:16), does not covet or lust (Q. 91:7&8), does not get bored
(Q 9:118) and does not get tormented (Q. 9:55) ... all these
belong to the soul and not the Spirit.
While common language 'mixes between' soul and Spirit, using them
interchangeably, the Qur'an does not treat the two words in this way,
but instead uses the word 'Spirit' exclusively in relation to God. Dr
The Spirit, however, is always mentioned in the Qur'an with a high
degree of holiness, honour and Divine Transcendence. It is never
described as suffering pain or coveting, or lusting or longing or
desiring, or being purified or defiled, or ascending or descending
or being bored. There is no mention that it leaves the body or
suffers death ... it is not associated with man, but is mentioned
always in association with God (Q. 19:17). Of the creation of Adam
God says, 'When I have shaped him, and breathed My Spirit in him
...' (Q. 15:29). God says 'My Spirit', not 'the spirit of Adam' -
that is, this Spirit is from God. So our Lord related the Spirit
always to Himself. And again: 'Even so We have revealed to thee a
Spirit of Our bidding.' The Spirit here is the Divine Word and the
Divine command. Thus the Spirit is always related to God, and is
in constant movement from God and to God ... for this reason the
Spirit is described in such high and lofty terms. For the Qur'an
calls Gabriel 'Spirit of Holiness' ... and 'the faithful Spirit'.
But the soul is related always to one's self, its owner. 'Whatever
befell you from evil is from yourself [soul]' (Q. 4:79).
In contrast to the soul,
The Spirit has no place in Paradise or Hell, but it is light from
God's light, related to God. It is from Him. It cannot be
subjected to trial or judgment, or punishment or reward, but it is
the highest example in the following Qur'anic verses, 'God's is
the loftiest likeness; He is the All-mighty, the All-wise' (Q.
16:60) and 'His is the loftiest likeness in the Heaven and the
earth' (Q. 30:27). This is the world of the radiant likeness that
derives its holiness and radiance from being 'from' God and 'from'
The Spirit then is always related to God, and belongs to the
THE DIVINITY OF THE SPIRIT
The traditional understanding of the nature of the Spirit is
represented by the scholar Al-Baihaqi, who said:
God created Adam a human being, so he was a body from clay for
forty years ... then when the time came in which God wanted the
spirit to breathe into him, God said to the angels ... 'when I
breath into him from My Spirit, worship him'.
The spirit from which it was breathed in Adam (peace be upon
him) was a creature from God's creation. God caused the life of
bodies by that spirit. He was added to God by way of creation and
possession; it is not that he is part of God.
According to Baihaqi, then, the Spirit takes part in the creation
of Adam even though the Spirit is a creature himself. Further, God's
part of the creation of Adam is limited to the forming of the
lifeless body. The life of that body comes from the created Spirit.
There are serious problems with this view. Firstly, no creature
can partake in the act of creation; that act is all Divine. Secondly,
(even if this were not so), to say that the body was formed by God
while the gift of life came from the created Spirit turns the
distribution of the creative act 'upside down', for the forming of
Adam as a 'body of clay' is a much inferior achievement to the giving
of life. Scientists claim they can form a cell, but that cell is
lifeless. People can terminate life by murder or suicide, and they
can transfer life by having offspring, but neither we nor any created
being originate it. The giving of life is a Divine property and a
Divine secret, not a capability of created beings.
For these reasons, the view that the Spirit which gave Adam the
gift of life is a creature must be rejected. The Spirit is either
Divine or has no part in the act of creation at all. However, the
Qur'an speaks of the Spirit as taking part in the creation of Adam.
The Spirit then is Divine.
This Spirit in traditional Islam has also been identified with
Gabriel, the angel of Inspiration. Such an identification, if true,
would make the Spirit a creature of God's creation, although he would
be the highest of all. Further understanding of the Spirit is
found in the writings of Ibn 'Arabi, the Sufi mystic who believed
Gabriel is not to be identified with the angel associated with the
Inspiration ... But Gabriel is the Principle of Life in all that
exists: he is the total Spirit - all that exists is permeated by
It, irrespective of the levels of life they possess ... Gabriel is
the Truth Himself, manifested in this Total Spirit.
So according to Ibn 'Arabi, Gabriel is not an angel but what
Gilani, (another Sufi), calls the 'Holy Spirit'. Gilani wrote:
Know that the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of spirits. He is beyond
and above the scope and range of the Divine creative command 'be'
(kon). It cannot be said of Him that He is a creature,
because He is a special aspect [literally, face] of the Truth
[that is, of God]. By that aspect, existence came to be. He is a
Spirit unlike other spirits, because He is the Spirit of God of
which it was breathed into Adam, as is referred to by God's word
'and breathed My Spirit in him'. So the spirit of Adam is created
and the Spirit of God is not created. He is the Holy Spirit; that
is, the Spirit of Holiness, which is different from the defects
and shortcomings of physical existence.
Gilani believed that the Holy Spirit is not a creature, as did Ibn
Hanbal, one of the four leaders of the Islamic schools of thought,
who said, 'The claim that the Holy Spirit is a creature is a
heresy.' In his view, it is a heresy to say that the Holy Spirit
is a creature, just as he believed it is a blasphemy to say that the
Word of God is created.
Imam Abu al-'Azayem, another Sufi scholar, said:
The Spirit [whom God breathed from in Adam] is the summation of
all truths and is perfect in description. For this reason God made
man His vice-regent and made the angels to worship him.
This is a clear acknowledgment that the Spirit is not a creature,
but Divine. Only if the Spirit breathed into Adam is divine is the
worship by the angels of Adam permissible, for then it is not classed
as the worship by one creature of another, but the worship by a
creature of the Divine in Adam.
As stated earlier traditional Muslim scholars believe that the
Qur'an portrays God as having a body, and soul. Even if the
components of the body and the soul of Allah could be allegorised,
the Qur'an definitely portrays Allah as having a spirit. We have also
shown that the spirit is not a creature, but is capable of imparting
life, and that which can impart life to man can't possess less life
than that of man. The life that the Spirit of God possesses implies
that the Spirit can think, see, hear etc. Otherwise man the creature
possesses more life than the Spirit of God who gave man life.
Therefore according to the Qur'an, God is at least a dual being.
Muslims then have the same difficulty in comprehending the nature of
Allah as the Christians have in understanding the nature of God.
REVELATION VERSUS HUMAN IDEAS
This difficulty for both Muslims and Christians is to be expected
because we are trying to understand not just a higher form of life
but the highest form of life. The following might make this
difficulty easier to accept.
Following on from the analogy of the tree which tries to
comprehend the nature of man, let us give a tree, not just the
conviction of the existence of man, but special revelation about the
nature of man. Let us give a tree special eyes to see man. The tree
will still not be able to describe what man is really like. Some
physical things such as eyes and ears will be completely
incomprehensible, while abilities such as thinking and willing, and
emotions will be beyond all comprehension or description. To a tree,
the ability of man to be self-moving is as incomprehensible as that
of God being self existent is to man. Whatever the difficulties may
be, a tree can not comprehend some aspects of the nature of man
except in 'tree concepts.'
For example, man's body might be perceived as two trunks, instead
of legs, joining together to make the main trunk. Man's toes might be
perceived as ten roots, and his arms as two branches, ending with ten
Furthermore if a tree was enabled to see the circulatory system of
man, it might see the blood vessels as another tree inside of man. If
it was able to see the nervous system of man, it might see that as a
second tree inside the external tree, and man will be three trees,
yet one tree.
If a tree was to try to convey all the above attributes or
properties of man to the rest of the trees, the task would not be
easy, to say the least, and we have not yet even mentioned the soul
or the spirit of man!
When the tree was simply under the conviction of the existence of
man, its comprehension of man was singular and simple. But when the
tree was given special revelation, the nature of man was not so
simple but sophisticated and complex. That is the difference between
the teachings of the Qur'an and the teaching of the Bible about the
nature of God.
We, being limited in comprehending the divine, must accept by
faith (bela kayf i.e. without asking how) what God has
revealed about His nature. Analogies might help us understand better,
but they do have limitations. An analogy makes one point, as Ghazali,
a Muslim scholar has said. 'The analogy does not have to agree in
every way with that which it resembles.' As long as we are in
this earthly form of existence we know by faith. Indeed that
is the way orthodox Muslims accept the Qur'anic verses that speak of
God sitting and coming, and God's hands, face and eyes. They accept
all that "without asking 'how'" (bela kayf) as expressed in the words
of the Muslim scholar al-Ash'ari when he summed up his 'picture' of
We confess that Allah is firmly seated on His throne ... We
confess that Allah has two hands, without asking how ... We
confess that Allah has two eyes without asking how ... We confess
that Allah has a face ... We confirm that Allah has a knowledge
... hearing and sight ... and power.
Christians too believe that God is one. He has a living 'Word'
(uncreated 'Son'), by whom God created everything. God also has a
If someone still insists and says, 'How can the three be one?',
Ghazali answered a similar question when he said:
How can the many be one? Know that this is the goal of all
revelations. And the secrets of this science should not be penned
down in a book, for the people of knowledge said: 'The unveiling
of the secret of Lordship is blasphemy ... The thing can be many
in one sense, but also can be one in another sense. And so, as man
is many in one sense if you look at his spirit and body and limbs
and blood vessels and bones and members, but in another sense he
is one man.
The philosopher Ghazali said that 'the greatest and highest of all
pleasures is knowing God.'
Since no one has ever seen God, knowing Him must come through a
revelation of Himself.
Traditional Muslims are forbidden by the Hadith to investigate the
nature of God. The Hadith states 'Reflect on the creation of God and
do not reflect on the essence of God.' However human minds (such
as Ghazali's and other Muslim Sufis) being investigative, and
hungering for more about the nature of God, have reflected.
When traditional Muslims reflected on the medium that reveals God,
that is the Qur'an, they concluded that the Qur'an is divine. 'God is
revealed to his creatures through His words [the Qur'an]', which
is believed to be the word of God. This 'Word of God' is believed to
be eternal, from God, yet it is always with God.
According to orthodox Muslim scholars, the Qur'an 'Which is
recited by tongues, written in Masahif, remembered in hearts, YET
is Eternal, existing in God Himself, cannot be separated or parted
from God by transferring it to the hearts or by writing it on
In traditional Islam the Qur'an is believed to be divine. In
Christianity Jesus the Christ the 'Word of God' is believed to be
divine. However, in fundamental Islam God is revealed through two
mediums. The Qur'an and creation.
When Muslim Sufis reflected on the other medium that reveals God,
that is creation, they concluded that creation is divine. The
philosopher Ghazali had this to say in explaining the Muslim
testimony 'God is Great' (Allahu Akbar):
That does not mean that God is greater than the creation,
for creation is His manifestation as light manifests the sun, and
it would not be correct to say that the sun is greater than its
Ghazali believes that the creation is divine, for God is not
greater than the creation. In other words the creation is equal to
God, or part of God. Here we have two who are equally divine. But
there is one who is divine. And hence comes Ghazali's question: How
can the many be one?
Ibn Arabi the famous Sufi said:
God (al-haqq) wanted to see the essences (al-a'yan)
of His most perfect Names (al-asma al-husna) whose number
is infinite - and if you like you can equally well say: God wanted
to see His own Essence ('eyn) in one global object
(kawn) which having been blessed with existence
(al-wujud) summarised the Divine Order (al-amr) so
that there He could manifest His mystery to Himself.
According to Ibn Arabi God needs the global object, that is,
creation so that He might see His own essence. This logic raises a
problem. How did God see His own essence before creation? This
implies that God's knowledge of Himself was incomplete before
That is what made other Sufis introduce the following reasoning:
There is no lover and beloved except God. For whatever is in
existence is but the Divine Presence, which is His Essence, His
Attributes, His Actions. As you say the Word of God is His
Knowledge, and His Knowledge is His Essence. For it is impossible
that there exists in His Essence that which is extra or another
essence ('eyn) which is not His Essence ... It is impossible for
His Essence to be perfected by that which is not His Essence, so
that the Essence gains the honour by other than the Essence.
Like Ghazali, they faced the same problem: Can the Essence of God
gain honour by that which is inferior to the essence? Can the
creation that manifests God be inferior to the God it reveals? Their
answer was no. And the result was that creation was considered to be
divine, an obvious contradiction. For it is absurd that the creature
(creation) should perfect the creator (God).
However, it is the logic of the last sentence that concerns us.
'It is impossible for God's Essence to be perfected by that which is
not His Essence, so that the Essence gains the honour by other than
the Essence.' The logic of the above statement is true. It is the
Sufis' conclusion that is wrong. Creation is not divine.
When orthodox Muslims reflected on the medium that reveals God
they concluded that the Qur'an was divine and when the Sufi Muslims
reflected on creation as the medium to reveal God they concluded that
creation was divine. Christians on the other hand believe that the
revealer of God, Jesus the Christ, the 'Word of God', is divine. The
logic is the same: the revealer of God must be divine. It is the
conclusions that are different. Furthermore, when the Sufis reflected
on the nature of 'God' they accepted that He could be a trinity. Here
is a statement that sums up the Sufis belief:
If you say that it (the Essence of God) is one, you are right; or
if you say that it is Two, it is in fact Two. Or if you say, 'no
it is Three,' you are right, for that is the real nature of
Orthodox Muslims have avoided the issues, with the bela
kayf formula, and by making the Spirit of God a creature.
However, we have seen that the Spirit of God is divine. The orthodox
Muslim who faces the issue has to at least explain how can God have a
Spirit, yet He is one.
The Sufis saw creation as the revealer of God, thus rejecting the
Son of God and His Word who became man and was called the Christ.
When people reject the truth, thinking it to be impossible, they end
up believing that which is clearly absurd. For in rejecting the
perfect revealer of God, His 'Word', Jesus, as divine, they accepted
creation as divine. The handiwork of an artist cannot reveal the
inner being of the artist. The creation of an artist might be
breathtaking, but the artist himself can be an immoral or mentally
disturbed person. Creative works are an indication about the talents
and the abilities of the creator but not his essence. The god of the
Sufis becomes perfect by the creature. The God of the Bible is
eternally glorious, eternally perfect because His revealer, His Word
and Son is also eternal.
We can see that orthodox Muslims, Sufi Muslims, and the Christians
have to face the same issues. The orthodox Muslim on one hand avoided
them. The Sufi Muslim on the other hand accepted a trinity of their
BUT I STILL CAN'T UNDERSTAND
Someone might say I believe in the 'Word of God' Jesus and the
Holy Spirit, but still cannot comprehend the trinity? To answer such
a person we ask: Do you comprehend everything you see? Take for
example man's ability to feel pain. Man is made of dust, that is
calcium, iron, nitrogen, oxygen etc.. How can the dust feel pain? His
nervous system by which he feels the pain is also made of dust. How
can calcium, and iron etc, feel the pain? This is a mystery. It is
not because one cannot comprehend this marvel that we reject this
fact of life. Reflecting on time and space, one can find the same
difficulty. Was there a point in time when there was no time? Or what
was before time? Again is there a place where there is no space? We
don't reject time and space because we cannot comprehend them.
After the above analogies and explanations someone might still
say: But I still do not understand. We remind him of the words of
Augustine who said: 'If you understand it, it's not God.'
Some Objections Concerning the deity of Christ
1. Some may object by saying that if Jesus is divine, and hence
all-knowing, why did He say that He did not know the time of his
Since sin and death entered the world through a man, both had to
be removed by a man. When the divine Word of God became man, He came
to please and to obey God as a man. Thus He was both human (because
He was born of a woman) and divine (because He is the Word of God.)
Jesus had two natures: One divine and one human. The two natures
can be seen in the incident of calming the sea in Luke 8:22-25. The
human characteristics can be seen in Him being asleep in the ship.
The divine characteristics can be seen in His rebuking of the wind
and the waves. The two natures can also be seen in Luke 8:43-48. The
human characteristics can be seen in him asking who touched him. The
divine characteristics can be seen in the power that came from Him.
The question then becomes: if He was both divine and human, why
didn't the divine communicate the information concerning the time of
His second coming to the human? Or in a broader sense: Why didn't the
divine communicate all the divine powers to the human? If all the
divine powers were communicated to the human, then He would no longer
have been truly human. When the divine was manifested through the
human, it was done in order to promote the kingdom of God, and
specifically according to the will of the Father. Indeed there were
incidents when the human could have resorted to use the divine. For
example, when Peter, in the Garden cut off the high Priest servant's
ear, (Matt. 26:47-54, John 18:10-11), Jesus said to him:
Put your sword in its place, for all who take the sword will
perish by the sword. Or do you think that I cannot now pray to My
Father, and He will provide Me with more than twelve legions of
angels? How then could the Scriptures be fulfilled, that it must
Jesus could have made use of the divine but rather He decided to
live according to the will of the Father. That meant that Jesus did
not use the divine to alleviate any of His human suffering; meet his
human needs; cover his areas of vulnerability, or to gain any
information that is not according to the will of the Father, such as
the day of His second coming.
The question ('If Jesus was divine, He would have known the day of
His second coming') is similar to the question the devil asked Jesus
during the temptation in the wilderness: 'If you are the Son of God,
command that these stones become bread' (Matt. 4:3). To this
question, Jesus replied "It is written, 'man shall not live by bread
alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.'" The
devil knew that the Son of God could command the stones to become
bread. Yet the Lord Jesus surrendered to the will of God, and chose
to hunger like a man. Likewise the Lord Jesus did not seek to know
the hour of His second coming.
This question is again similar to the one the Jews asked Jesus
while He was on the cross saying: 'If you are the Son of God come
down from the cross' (27:40). But that is precisely why the Word of
God became man. He came to live under the same conditions and
limitations of humanity and ultimately suffer and die according to
the divine plan.
The Lord Jesus in contrast to not knowing the day of His second
coming declared that 'No one knows the Son except the Father. Nor
does anyone know the Father except the Son' (Matt. 11:27). This is
the knowledge that counts. The Lord Jesus is declaring that there is
only one who knows who the Son is - that one is the Father. On the
other hand, there is only one who knows who the Father is - that one
is the Son. To know something is to see the thing in its entirety. No
one can claim knowledge with limited comprehension. Jesus' claim to
know the infinite Father, is a claim that He himself is infinite. No
lower form of life is capable of comprehending a higher form of life.
It takes God to know God. Even the Muslim Sufis say that no one knows
God except God.
The above objection could be reversed with equal force to suggest
that Jesus was not human. Consider the reverse: Jesus could not have
been human because He said: 'No one knows the Son except the Father.
Nor does anyone know the Father except the Son' (Matt. 11:27). It
could be argued that Jesus could not have been human since this
knowledge belongs only to God. Indeed there is a mass of evidence
that could be advanced to prove that Jesus was not human, but He was
The apostle Paul wrote the following concerning the mystry of the
Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus who being
in the form of God, did not consider it robbery to be equal with
God, but made himself of no reputation [literally emptied himself]
taking the form of a servant, and coming in the likeness of men.
And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and
became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the
cross. Therefore God also has exalted Him and given Him the name
which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee
should bow, of those in heaven and of those on earth and of those
under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus
Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. (Philippians
The fact is that the Bible teaches that Christ was both divine and
human. The difficulty then becomes one of how, not why, and when we
can answer the 'hows' of the natural we can turn to the 'hows' of the
supernatural. Consider for example the incident in Matthew 14:22-33
where the Lord Jesus walked on the water. His body was capable of
sinking, but He was walking on the water. This is somewhat similar to
an aeroplane. It is marvellous to see a large jet full of cargo and
perhaps more than 500 passengers, with a weight comparable to that of
a house, flying up in the air. It can be said that the aeroplane has
two natures; one that can sink and one that can fly. The aeroplane
can manifest all the characteristics of a dead weight, and yet all
the characteristics of a flying machine as well. Even this phenomenon
is too difficult for some people to comprehend.
2. Some have objected 'How can Jesus be divine if He acknowledges
God to be His God, as in the words to Mary, 'Do not cling to Me, for
I have not yet ascended to My Father; but go to My brethren and say
to them, "I am ascending to My Father and your Father, and to My God
and your God"" (John 20:17)
It is to be noted that when Jesus said 'I am ascending to My
Father and your Father and to My God and to your God', He did not to
say 'I am ascending to our Father and our God.' Jesus had to make the
distinction between My Father and your Father and My God and your
It is also to be noted that in Jesus' statement we see the two
natures of Christ. The statement, "My Father", points to the divine
nature of Christ. When Jesus healed the man who was paralysed for 38
years the Jews objected to the healing because it took place on the
For this reason the Jews persecuted Jesus, and sought to kill Him,
because He had done these things on the Sabbath. But Jesus
answered them, 'My Father has been working until now, and I have
been working.' Therefore the Jews sought all the more to kill Him,
because He not only broke the Sabbath, but also said that God was
His Father, making Himself equal with God. (John 5:16-18)
The Jews understood the statement 'My Father' as a claim to
divinity. Had the Lord Jesus said 'Our Father has been working' there
would have been no problem. However, Jesus intentionally made the
distinction as He did in John 20:17.
When Jesus said, 'My Father ', there was the reference to the
divine nature in Him. When He said, 'your Father', it was because
they were adopted as children due to His work of redemption. When
Jesus said, 'My God', there was the reference to His human nature
which He acquired through the incarnation. When He said, 'Your God',
it was because they were His creatures. Thus the one who is a Son by
nature becomes a slave by the incarnation, in order that those who
are slaves by nature become sons by adoption.
3. Some object that when the Lord Jesus said the 'Father is
greater than I' he was claiming that he was only a creature.
The statement 'the Father is greater than I' must be understood in
the context of what the Lord Jesus said to his disciples on that
occasion. He was soon going to depart from them to be with the
Father. Here is what the Lord Jesus said:
Little children, I shall be with you a little while longer. You
will seek Me; and as I said to the Jews, 'Where I am going, you
cannot come,' so now I say to you.
A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another; as I
have loved you, that you also love one another.
By this all will know that you are My disciples, if you have love
for one another."
Simon Peter said to Him, "Lord, where are You going?" Jesus
answered him, "Where I am going you cannot follow Me now, but you
shall follow Me afterward."
Peter said to Him, "Lord, why can I not follow You now? I will lay
down my life for Your sake."
Jesus answered him, "Will you lay down your life for My sake? Most
assuredly, I say to you, the rooster shall not crow till you have
denied Me three times.
Let not your heart be troubled; you believe in God, believe also
in Me. In My Father's house are many mansions; if it were not so,
I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you.
And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and
receive you to Myself; that where I am, there you may be also.
And where I go you know, and the way you know."
Thomas said to Him, "Lord, we do not know where You are going, and
how can we know the way?"
Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one
comes to the Father except through Me.
If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also; and from
now on you know Him and have seen Him."
Philip said to Him, "Lord, show us the Father, and it is
sufficient for us." Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you so
long, and yet you have not known Me, Philip? He who has seen Me
has seen the Father; so how can you say, 'Show us the Father'?
Do you not believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me?
The words that I speak to you I do not speak on My own authority;
but the Father who dwells in Me does the works.
Believe Me that I am in the Father and the Father in Me, or else
believe Me for the sake of the works themselves.
Most assuredly, I say to you, he who believes in Me, the works
that I do he will do also; and greater works than these he will
do, because I go to My Father.
And whatever you ask in My name, that I will do, that the Father
may be glorified in the Son.
If you ask anything in My name, I will do it.
If you love Me, keep My commandments.
And I will pray the Father, and He will give you another Helper,
that He may abide with you forever--
the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it
neither sees Him nor knows Him; but you know Him, for He dwells
with you and will be in you.
I will not leave you orphans; I will come to you.
A little while longer and the world will see Me no more, but you
will see Me. Because I live, you will live also.
At that day you will know that I am in My Father, and you in Me,
and I in you. He who has My commandments and keeps them, it is he
who loves Me. And he who loves Me will be loved by My Father, and
I will love him and manifest Myself to him."
Judas (not Iscariot) said to Him, "Lord, how is it that You will
manifest Yourself to us, and not to the world?"
Jesus answered and said to him, "If anyone loves Me, he will keep
My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and
make Our home with him.
He who does not love Me does not keep My words; and the word which
you hear is not Mine but the Father's who sent Me.
These things I have spoken to you while being present with
But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My
name, He will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance
all things that I said to you.
Peace I leave with you, My peace I give to you; not as the world
gives do I give to you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither
let it be afraid.
You have heard Me say to you, 'I am going away and coming back to
you.' If you loved Me, you would rejoice because I said, 'I am
going to the Father,' for My Father is greater than I. (John
In the above discourse the Lord Jesus had just declared to his
1. He is one with the Father.
2. He is the Way and the Truth and the Life.
3. Whoever has seen Him has seen the Father. (a statement he repeated
4. He is in the Father and the Father in Him, (a statement He
If the Lord Jesus was a mere creature, yet a glorious one, as some
claim, He would be in the same class as the archangel Michael. Let us
put the claims the Lord Jesus made on the lips of the archangel
Michael. Could the archangel Michael say 'I am one with the Father?'
Could the archangel Michael say 'I am the Way, the Truth and the
Could the archangel Michael say 'whoever has seen me has seen the
Father', or 'I am in the Father and the Father in me?' The answer to
all the above questions is no. Yet the Lord Jesus without hesitation
made the above assertions to his disciples, and demanded their faith
in Him as such.
If we just reflect on the statement, 'I am the Truth', we will
soon realise that Jesus was making the highest claim that could ever
be made, for there is nothing greater than the Truth. Yet a few
minutes later we hear Him saying to the disciples 'If you loved Me,
you would rejoice because I said, "I am going to the Father, 'for My
Father is greater than I.'"' Was Jesus saying one thing and a few
minutes later saying the opposite?
Throughout John 13:33-14:28 the Lord Jesus stressed his divinity
many times, and he wanted the disciples to believe Him. The disciples
however, represented by Thomas and Philip, expressed their unbelief
by asking two questions. It is Phillip's question that interests us.
The Lord Jesus told the disciples
If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also; and from
now on you know Him and have seen Him.'
But Philip said to Him, 'Lord, show us the Father, and it is
sufficient for us.'
To which the Lord Jesus replied:
'Have I been with you so long, and yet you have not known Me,
Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father; so how can you
say, 'Show us the Father'?
The disciples did not fully understand the divinity of Jesus at
this point in time. To Phillip, who represented the disciples, the
claims of Jesus were too fantastic to believe, and the revelation of
the Father in Jesus was not sufficient. He still wanted to see the
Father. The Lord Jesus, in effect, said to Phillip 'you have already
seen the Father.' In other words, if the Father Himself is the one
who came in the flesh, the person Philip would see would be no other
than Jesus. The Lord Jesus' claim that He is the perfect revelation
of the Father is expressed in the following words of Jesus:
Do you not believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me?
The words that I speak to you I do not speak on My own authority;
but the Father who dwells in Me does the works.
According to the above if the Father was the one to come in the
flesh he would not be a 'greater Jesus'. In this hypothetical case
the Father would still look like the man Jesus. But we all agree that
the Father in His spiritual glorified form is greater than His
appearance in the form of that man. So even if the Father became
incarnate, Philip would still ask the same question. But the Father
is greater than what Philip and the disciples saw, and so is the Lord
Jesus. Had the father been incarnated He might even make a statement
like 'the Holy Spirit is greater than I,' Because the Holy Spirit is
not confined by the flesh. That is what the Lord Jesus meant when he
said to His disciples 'the Father is greater than I.'
What did the disciples see in Jesus, the one who claimed divinity?
They saw a poor man, who did not even have a place where he could lay
Their faith in his divinity at this point was not established. It
is to those men that Jesus said: 'If you loved Me, you would rejoice
because I said, 'I am going to the Father,' for My Father is greater
In other words the Lord Jesus was saying 'If you loved me you
would rejoice for me, because I am going to the Father who dwells in
eternal glory who is in greater form than the humble man you see.'
If what is meant by that statement that the Father is greater than
the Son in essence, then the going of Jesus to him will not add any
thing to the relationship Christ had with God, because Christ stated
that He is in the Father and the Father is in him. Jesus elsewhere
stated that the Father is with him all the time. But the statement
makes sense if it means that the disciples ought to rejoice because
Christ, who is now in a humble state of humanity, when He departs
will be with the Father of glory. Indeed that is what Christ stated
to his disciples a few minutes earlier when He said concerning the
glory brought about by His death: 'If God is glorified in Him [Jesus]
God will glorify Him in Himself, and glorify Him immediately' (John
Later on when The Lord Jesus prayed He repeated the same thought:
Jesus spoke these words, lifted up His eyes to heaven, and said:
"Father, the hour has come. Glorify Your Son, that Your Son also
may glorify You, as You have given Him authority over all flesh,
that He should give eternal life to as many as You have given
And this is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true
God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent.
I have glorified You on the earth. I have finished the work which
You have given Me to do.
And now, O Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the
glory which I had with You before the world was." (John
It is this going to be with the Father, who is greater than Jesus
in his human form, to be glorified together with God, that ought to
have caused the disciples to rejoice.
4. Others have objected that the claim of the deity of Christ is a
later addition to the Gospels by the church, and was not taught by
It must be pointed out that Jesus Himself said that He is the Son
of God (John 5:18,24-26). Further more it was His claims that He is
the Son of God that caused the Jews to crucify Him (see, Mattthew
26:63-65, Mark 14:61-63, Luke 22:70, John 19:7).
However, let us assume that the Gospel writers and Paul were not
telling the truth. Evidence for the deity of Christ is furnished by
the Holy Book of the Jews. Muslims accept that Christ was
miraculously born of a virgin. This took place according to a
prophecy in the book of Isaiah 7:14:
Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold the virgin
shall conceive and bear a Son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
Since God interrupted the natural process of bringing people into
the world when Jesus came through a virgin, we must pay more
attention to His foretold name. The word 'Immanuel' means 'God
with us'. This name was not given by men but by God, and because God
means what He says this proves that the true nature of this Son is
We also read in Micah 5:2:
But you Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are little among the
thousands of Judah, yet out of you shall come forth to me the one
to be ruler in Israel, whose going forth have been from of old,
We know that this one born of a virgin was born in Bethlehem two
thousand years ago. However, before that His 'going forth' is
described as from 'everlasting', that is, He is eternal.
Furthermore we read in Isaiah 9:6-7:
For unto us a child is born, unto us a Son is given; and the
government will be upon his shoulders. And his name will be called
Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father,
Prince of Peace. Of the increase of His government and peace there
will be no end.
It is very clear from the above verses that this 'Son' was not
only a human being, because He was given divine titles such as Mighty
God and everlasting Father. Even if we disregard the testimony of
Paul and the writers, the prophecy of Isaiah is sufficient. It should
be noted that this was the testimony of someone who did not see
Christ, had no interest in making such a claim and it was given some
seven hundred years before the birth of Jesus. These prophecies were
not the opinion of men, but the revelation of God concerning who the
Word of God is. It is more remarkable that these prophecies are from
the Holy Book of the Jews who reject the deity of Christ.
1. Al-Qartaby, commenting on the Qur'an 4:171.
2. Al-Qartaby, commenting on the Qur'an 4:171. See also
3. Mohammad al-Ghazzali, 'Aqidat al-Muslim, Dar al-Bayan, Kuwait,
1970, p. 49.
4. EXEGETICAL DICTIONARY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, Vol 2, Edited by Horst
Balz and Gerhard Schneider, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1991, p. 439&
5. The Qur'an, 7: 54.
6. Ghazali, Ihya' 'Ulumed-Din, vol. 5, p. 26.
7. The Qur'an 3:47 & 59, 16:40, 19:35, 36:82, 40:68.
8. Harry Austryn Walfson, The Philosophy of the Kalam, Harvard
University press, 1976, p. 251 from Fisal III. p. 5, II. 5-6.
9. Al Hendy, Kanz al 'Ommal, vol 17 Hadith No. 704.
10. Sabbaki, Al tabaqat al shafe'eiah al Kubra, Vol. 6, p. 235.
11. Quoted by Harry Austryn Walfson, The Philosophy of the Kalam,
Harvard University press, 1976, p. 251 from Nihayat, p. 314, II.
12. Harry Austryn Walfson, The Philosophy of the Kalam, Harvard
University press, 1976, p. 240-241 from Tabari, Annals, p. 118, II.
10-11. See also Sabbaki, Al tabaqat al shafe'eiah, vol. 2, p. 42.
13. The Bible, Ezekial 37: 1-14. (King James Version)
14. Bruce Demarest and Gordon Lewis, Integrative Theology, Acadaemie
Books, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan Publishing House, 1987,
vol.1, p. 279.
15. The Qur'an, 55:27.
16. The Qur'an, 38:74.
17. Sahih Bukhari, English Translation on computer, Hadith No. 6.335
18. Al Hendy, Kanz al 'Ommal, vol 1, Hadith No. 1172 &
19. The Qur'an, 52:48.
20. Ghazzali, Ihya' 'Ulumed-Din, vol. 4, p. 267.
21. The Qur'an, 7:54.
22. The Qur'an, 89:22.
23. Sunan al Taramazi, vol. 2, p 307 Hadith no. 446.
24. Kanz al 'Ommal, vol. 1, Hadith no. 1177, 1178.
25. Yousef Al-Qaradawi, 'Elewah Mostafa and 'Ali Gammar, Al-Twahid,
Qatar, 1968, p. 118, 119.
26. 23 Years, Ali Dashti, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1985, p.
27. Imam Abi Hanifah, Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, Dar al-Kutub al-'Elmeyah,
Beirut, 1979, p. 33.
28. The Qur'an, 17:85.
29. Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, translated from Hindustani by
Claud Field, London, John Murray, 1910, p. 21.
30. Ibrahim Al-Qatan, quoting Dr Mustafa Mahmoud, Taysir At-Tafsir,
Vol. 3, p. 6.
33. Al-Baihaqy, Aby Bakr Ahmad Ibn Al-hosain Ibn Ali, Kitabu
Al-Asma'a Wa Ssefat, First edition, 1313H, India, p. 261.
34. id., p. 262.
35. Razi, Attafsir Al-Kabir, commenting on the Qur'an 2:30.
36. Dr Abu al-'Ala 'Afifi, commenting on Fusus al-Hikam, Dar al-Kitab
al-'Arabi, Part 2, 1980, p. 180.
37. Abd Al-Karim Al-Gilani, The Perfect Man, Al-Matba'ah
Al-Azhareiah, Cairo, 1328H, Vol. 2, p. 8 .
38. Al-'ustaz Mohammad Kamel So'aib, Megalat Al-massarah, 1966, p.
181. Quoted by Mr Hadad in Madkhal Ela Al-Hewar Al-Islami Al-masihi,
Al-Maktabah Al-Boulesiah, Lebanon, 1969.
39. Dr Mustafa Mahmoud, A-Sser Al-A'zam, Dar Al-'Awdah, Beirut,1986,
40. Ghazali, Ihya' 'Ulumed-Din, vol. 5, p. 26.
41. Arberry A.J., Revelation and Reason In Islam, George Allen &
Unwin Ltd, London, p. 22.
42. Ghazali, Ihya' 'Ulumed-Din, vol. 4, p. 263.
43. Ibid, p. 325.
44. Isma'iel Ibn Mohammad al-'Aglooni, Kashf Al-Khafa' 'Amma
'Eshtahar Min Al-'Ahadith 'Ala 'Alsenat 'Annas, Maktabat A-turath
Al-Islami, Part 2, Hadith No. 1005.
45. Ghazali, Ihya' 'Ulumed-Din, vol. 5 p. 64.
46. Sabbaki, Al tabaqat al shafe'eiah al Kubra, vol 6, p. 235.
47. Ghazali, the Alchemy of Happiness, London, John Murry, 1910, p.
48. Angela Culme-Seymour, The Wisdom Of The Prophets (Fusus
al-Hikam), Beshara Publications, Gloucestershire, 1975, p. 8.
49. Al-Tirmizi, Kitab Khatm Al-Awliya, Edited by Othman I. Yahya,
Imperial Catholique, Beirut, p. 293.
50. Nicholson, R.A., Studies in Mysticism, Cambridge university
press, cambridge, 1967, P86 Qouted from Al-insanu 'l-kamel part 110,
51. Alister McGrath, Understanding The Trinity, Kingsway
Publications, Eastbourne, 1987, p. 111.
Copyright © 1996 by M. N. Anderson. All rights reserved.
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