The POPE Encyclopedia

by Matthew Bunson

Indeks Kristiani | Indeks Artikel
ISNET Homepage | MEDIA Homepage | Program Kerja | Koleksi | Anggota



Pope from 1099 to 1118 whose pontificate  was  dominated  by
his  struggle  with  Emperor  Henry  V over lay investiture.
Rainerius was born in Bieda  di  Galeata,  near  Ravenna  in
1050,  entering  one  of the monastic orders at a young age.
Sent to Rome around the age of twenty,  he  later  attracted
the  favorable attention of Pope St. Gregory VII and in 1080
was appointed a cardinal. Under Urban II, he served as papal
legate  to Spain and, on August 13, 1099, succeeded Urban as
pope.  Taking  the  name  Paschal,  he  immediately  pledged
himself  to  Urban's  two  main  projects  of continuing the
reform of the Church  and  promoting  the  ongoing  crusade,
which  had  just  captured  Jerusalem  from  the Muslims. He
unfortunately found most of his reign taken up by the bitter
controversy  over  investiture,  which had troubled Urban as
well. Paschal first had to contend with Henry  IV,  whom  he
excommunicated  at  the  Council  of  Rome  in 1102. He then
assisted Henry's son, Henry V, in overthrowing  his  father,
but  Paschal was soon disappointed when the new ruler proved
just as determined and demanding as his father in the matter
of  investiture. Negotiations proved fruitless and the young
ruler marched on  Italy.  Paschal  sent  representatives  to
Sutri in 1111, where an agreement was finally reached: Henry
would cease granting Church offices and, in return,  Paschal
would  surrender all feudal rights in the Holy Roman Empire,
including  the  lucrative  monies  brought  in  from   these
temporal   possessions.   Paschal  would  also  crown  Henry
emperor. Far more destructive than Henry's troops  were  his
legal experts for they reasoned, correctly so, that when the
agreement was read aloud at the coronation  on  February  2,
111,  it would create a firestorm of controversy, espeeially
among  the  disenfranchised  German   bishops.   Using   the
commotion at the gathering, Henry seized Paschal and sixteen
of his cardinals, withdrew in bloody fashion,  and  went  to
work  at  snapping  the  pope's resolve. This he did through
threat of torture and death. Paschal gave to Henry the right
of  investiture  and crowned him at St. Peter's on April 13,
1111. Christendom was appalled at Paschal for giving in, and
Henry for committing such an outrage upon the pope. The next
year, the agreement was rescinded by the Lateran Council and
the  shame-faced pontiff, and Paschal finally excommunicated
Henry in 1118. Paschal's last years were further troubled by
the  unrest  in  Rome. He left the city as an exile from his
own flock, returning in early 1118 and taking  up  residence
behind  the stout walls of Castel Sant'Angelo. There he died
on  January  21,  824,  leaving  the  papacy   in   terrible
condition. Succesor: Gelasius II.

(sebelum, sesudah)

Published by Crown Trade Paperbacks
201 East 50th Street, New York
New York 10022, USA
ISBN 0-517-88256-6

Indeks Kristiani | Indeks Artikel
ISNET Homepage | MEDIA Homepage | Program Kerja | Koleksi | Anggota

Please direct any suggestion to Media Team