Statistical Significance Discovered in The Yeshua Codes
by Guy Cramer and Lori Eldridge
This paper has been posted in response to the paper "Jesus Codes: Uses and Abuses"
The author, Rabbi Daniel Mechanic (In consultation with Doron Witztum and Harold Gans) concludes in his paper "Jesus Codes: Uses and Abuses" that the equidistant letter sequences (ELS) recently discovered by Yacov Rambsel (a Messianic Pastor) concerning the name Yeshua (Jesus in Hebrew) discovered in ELS code hundreds of times in the Old Testament, do not display anything significant other than random chance.
For an explanation on equidistant letter sequences (ELS)
The paper "Jesus Codes: Uses and Abuses", upon investigation, has been based on something the intelligence community and political circles refer to as a disinformation paper. Disinformation is to take an agenda, find as many truthful statements as you can, mix it with the message you want to get across to your target audience with a few questionable items that you want to imply and you leave the rest of the truth you don't want divulged out of it. The paper by Rabbi Mechanic is posted by Jews for Judaism - an anti-Christian organization.
By producing a document or report in this way the target audience is usually convinced that the report or paper is totally authentic and truthful without questioning some of the points of contention that may be brought up if the paper or report is written in a standard way.
Lets first investigate the truths found in the paper:
We can confirm Rabbi Mechanic's equations on the random occurrence of the word Yeshua:
How often can we randomly expect to find the ELS of Yeshua in the book of Genesis at ELS skip distances of 2-1000?
First we must find out the Frequency Divisor for each letter in the ELS:
We then take the first letter of the ELS which is a yod (remember Hebrew is read from right to left) and make it 1 for our equation, (we will get back to this later) so the beginning of our equation becomes:
We then find out how many times the first letter of the ELS (in this case - Yod ) appears in Genesis.
We then find out what ELS skip distance to calculate, in this instance we will use a skip distance of 1,000.
(*note: the Amount of chances to search is the number of starting letters found in the text multiplied by the skip distance range being searched.)
and multiply this total by 2 because the ELS can go forwards or backwards from the start letter.
To Get our Answer:
This large amount of occurences of the ELS Yeshua at a skip of 1000 does not apply only to the Bible. It can be found in any text from a newspaper to any book. It is a random occurence and expected to occur.
Rabbi Mechanic states in his paper that the ELS Yeshua actually occurs randomly over 10,000 times in the Torah (the first five books of the Bible) when the skip distance of 850 is searched by computer.
Does our equation work with these computer findings:
Our equation also works with small skip distances as well:
If one sticks to an ELS of Yeshua which is 10 and under, then a computer search shows Yeshua only occurs 103 times in the whole Torah and only 25 times in the whole book of Genesis.
Our equation shows that we should expect to find the ELS
Yeshua 119.221 times randomly in the Torah for a skip
Our equation also confirms the random occurence of the
Yeshua ELS in the book of Genesis for a skip between 2-10.
We came up with an answer of 32.360
Therefore, we confirm these findings of the "Jesus Codes: Uses and Abuses" paper and the mathematical equation we are using for the next part of our paper.
Rabbi Mechanic goes on in his paper to review the Yeshua phrases.
Pastor Rambsel points out in his book that the Phrase
"Yeshua Shmi" (Yeshua is my name)
We ran a computer search for the smallest skip distances in the Torah for the above. We calculated the following Significance Index for the phrases and compared it with the "Yeshua Shmi" phrase in Isaiah:
"Mohammed Shmi" (Mohammed is my name) was found at a skip
distance of -321 in Numbers 2:31-1:41
To calculate an answer for Expected Frequency we Divide the Total amount of chances to search with the Frequency Divisor for the ELS.
Since expected frequency is difficult for the non-mathematician to understand with smaller percentages we simply reverse the end of the equation from: (Divide the Total amount of chances to search with the Frequency Divisor) into: (Divide the Frequency Divisor with the Total amount of chances to search) for the answer to display a Significance Index.
Here a significance index of 1/1 is average (random or expected) and the smaller the significance index the better. 1/1000 means that one would typically have to search 1000 texts to find a particular word in the skip range in which it was found.
The further away from 1/1 we get the more likley what we
are seeing is not expected and can thus be looked at as
having some intelligent design behind the ELS. It should be
noted that when we refer to an ELS as having a significance
index of 1/50 this does not mean that what we are actually
seeing is a code. 1/50 by most mathematicians would still be
considered a random occurence, something we might expect to
find in any text.
With the phrase discovered by Pastor Rambsel in Leviticus 20:27 "dam Yeshua" (the blood of Yeshua) Rabbi Mechanic then states that this phrase appears by coincidence because the phrases "dam Mohammed" (the blood of Mohammed) and "dam Koresh" (the blood of Koresh) are also found in the book of Leviticus.
Lets look a little closer at this phrase and the
Significance Index involved with each of the above. First
lets find out the Significance Index for the phrase in
Leviticus "dam Mohammed" skip distance of 419 (as
listed in Rabbi Mechanic's footnotes)
Now we will look at the Significance Index of "dam
Koresh" a skip of 844 (as listed in
Rabbi Mechanic's footnotes)
As we can see above none of the ELS phrases, including the Yeshua phrases that Rabbi Mechanic reviewed, can be considered mathematically significant, they are random and expected to occur in any text. However Rabbi Mechanic failed to mention other phrases discovered by Pastor Rambsel.
Rabbi Mechanic states that all of Pastor Rambsels discoveries are invalid because of the incorrect methodology he has used. Many mistakes have been made in Pastor Rambsels methodology, but this does not invalidate all of the discoveries of Pastor Rambsel.
Why was the ELS phrase found by Pastor Rambsel in Leviticus 21:10 left out of Rabbi Mechanic's paper? Let's take a closer look:
Note this Significance Index is beyond what Rabbi Mechanic says an ELS to be accepted as a code must be - smaller than in 1/1000 (chances of being accidental must be smaller than 1 chance in 1000). This ELS is one chance in 69,711.30 . Therefore, for this ELS, "Behold! The blood of Jesus" to come up random at a skip distance between 2-3, we need to search 69,711.30 books of equal length to the book of Leviticus with all the letters of the individual books in different positions from the others until we can expect to find one random occurence. This does not mean that we shouldn't expect to find this on the 20,000th search but if we search 1,000,000 different books of equal length to the book of Leviticus with all the letters of the individual books in different positions from the others, we should only expect to find this ELS 14 times at a skip of 2-3.
If this was the only significant Yeshua ELS then I wouldn't be to impressed, but it is not:
The First significant Yeshua ELS phrase begins in the first word of The Bible
(note: When yahkol is used without another verb, as in this case, the sense is "to prevail" or "to overcome". When yahkol is used with another verb it means "can" or "to be able".)
In reality this phrase is found in the first yod of
Genesis. If we recalculate for this phrase from the
first at a skip distance of
To get this phrase to occur by chance from the first Yod we need to search 59,394.26 Genesis sized books.
Here we have complex encrypted ELS patterns which required reference into a classification system so we could calculate the Significance Index. This high level of ELS encryption was discovered by Yakov Rambsel because he searches the text by hand. Computer searches by others could not discover the complex encryption of these ELS phrases unless the computer programs were told to look for the second word to be backwards, or for a second ELS to be beside the first at the same skip distance.
The following is our brief review of the significant Yeshua ELS phrases that display a Significance Index of 1/100 or smaller.
The adjacent letters to Yeshua spell moreh which means, Teacher of
Righteousness; early rain.
The pomegranate is the fruit that G-D commanded Moses to put on the hem of the ephod the high priest wore when he did service unto the L-RD in the Holy Place.
In verse eight there is a phrase, they plot evil,
yach'shvu rah'ah . Notice every other letter
starting with the first yod () spells Yeshua . The remaining letters
spell, chavrah , which means, an
association, group family, or an assembly. The man that
betrayed Yeshua was of His group association.
Starting with the second to last yod() in verse nine, counting
from right to left every 14th letter, spells, Yeshua
chali, which means, Yeshua the
Moses represents the Torah and Elijah, the prophets.
Mechanic's statement "After you've proven an ELS to be a genuine Code subjective or interpretive comments about that specific Code are, at best, imaginative speculation and impossible to know for sure."
As we can see with these significant Yeshua ELS's there can be little doubt as to the meaning.
No statistically significant ELS codes have yet been found which link; "Yeshua" with "Navi Sheker" (False Prophet), or "Shakran" (liar), or "Maysit" (one who seduces others to go astray), or "Mechashaif" (sorcerer), or "Mashiach Sheker" (False Messiah), or "Dat Sheker" (False Religion), or "Klala" (curse). Popular rumors continue to link these terms with "Yeshua" and yet not one example to date has yet shown to be anything other than random chance.
None of the ELS names and phrases of other so called Messiahs that Rabbi Mechanic presents (such as Mohammed , Koresh, Lenin...) show any statistical significance. They have are random and expected to occur in any text.
It should be noted that research on the ELS phenomenon is still in its infancy. We should remain somewhat skeptical until more data has been researched.
The purpose of this paper has been:
We wish to thank Jim Ober for his help in revising the first draft of this paper. Jim Ober has worked with statistical methods for about 20 years. He has a MS degree in Industrial Engineering with an emphasis on computer simulation and statistical process control.
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